Cement-based piezoelectric composite, has been widely used as a kind of smart material in structural health monitoring and active vibration control. However, transient dynamic loads such as impact loads may cause serious damage to the composite. Considering the electrode layer effect, this paper aimed to investigate the theoretical response of a 2-2 cement-based piezoelectric composite sensor subjected to an impact load. The vibration behaviors are analyzed by using the mode summation method and the virtual work principle. To simulate the impact load, transient haversine wave loads are assumed in the numerical simulation. Close agreements between theoretical and numerical solutions are found for peak transient haversine wave loads larger than 500 kPa, therefore proving the validity of the theory. Moreover, the influence of the electrode material and geometrical parameters on the dynamic characteristics of this sensor are considered. The present work should be beneficial to the design of this kind of sensor by taking into account the electrode layer effect.