Oxidative stress has been considered as the main mediator in neurodegenerative diseases. A high-fat diet (HFD) and metabolic diseases result in oxidative stress generation, leading to various neurodegenerative diseases via molecular mechanisms that remain largely unknown. Protein kinases play an important role in the homeostasis between cell survival and cell apoptosis. The mammalian sterile 20-like kinase-1 (MST1) protein kinase plays an important role in cellular apoptosis in different organ systems, including the central nervous system. In this study, we evaluated the MST1/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) dependent oxidative damage mediated cognitive dysfunction in HFD-fed mice and stress-induced hippocampal HT22 (mice hippocampal) cells. Our Western blot and immunofluorescence results indicate that HFD and stress-induced hippocampal HT22 cells activate MST1/JNK/Caspase-3 (Casp-3) signaling, which regulates neuronal cell apoptosis and beta-amyloid-cleaving enzyme (BACE1) expression and leads to impaired cognition. Moreover, MST1 expression inhibition by shRNA significantly reduced JNK/Casp-3 signaling. Our in vivo and in vitro experiments mimicking metabolic stress, such as a high-fat diet, hyperglycemia, and an inflammatory response, determined that MST1 plays a key regulatory role in neuronal cell death and cognition, suggesting that MST1 could be a potential therapeutic target for numerous neurodegenerative diseases.