Bronchial asthma is a chronic disease characterized by reversible airway obstruction, mucus production, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). Although Th2 cell-mediated eosinophilic inflammation is an important disease mechanism in the majority of patients with bronchial asthma, recent studies suggest the possible development of Th2-independent airway inflammation and BHR. These non-Th2 endotype patients seem to consist of multiple subgroups, and often do not respond to inhaled corticosteroids. Therefore, to understand the pathogenesis of asthma, it is important to characterize these non-Th2 subgroups. Recently, we demonstrated that Th9 cells induce eosinophil infiltration and eosinophil-independent BHR, and Th9 cells-mediated BHR may be resistant to glucocorticoid. In this review, we summarize the contribution of several T cell subsets in the development of bronchial asthma and introduce our recent study demonstrating Th9 cell-mediated and eosinophil-independent BHR.