Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a dual role in fruit–pathogen interaction, which largely depends on their different levels in cells. Fruit recognition of a pathogen immediately triggers an oxidative burst that is considered an integral part of the fruit defense response. ROS are also necessary for the virulence of pathogenic fungi. However, the accumulation of ROS in cells causes molecular damage and finally leads to cell death. In this review, on the basis of data regarding ROS production and the scavenging systems determining ROS homeostasis, we focus on the role of ROS in fruit defense reactions against pathogens and in fungi pathogenicity during fruit–pathogen interaction.