IJMS, Vol. 20, Pages 4080: Off-Stoichiometric Reactions at the Cell-Substrate Biomolecular Interface of Biomaterials: In Situ and Ex Situ Monitoring of Cell Proliferation, Differentiation, and Bone Tissue Formation (International Journal of Molecular Sciences)
The availability of osteoinductive biomaterials has encouraged new therapies in bone regeneration and has potentially triggered paradigmatic shifts in the development of new implants in orthopedics and dentistry. Among several available synthetic biomaterials, bioceramics have gained attention for their ability to induce mesenchymal cell differentiation and successive bone formation when implanted in the human body. However, there is currently a lack of understanding regarding the fundamental biochemical mechanisms by which these materials can induce bone formation. Phenomenological studies of retrievals have clarified the final effect of bone formation, but have left the chemical interactions at the cell–material interface uncharted. Accordingly, the knowledge of the intrinsic material properties relevant for osteoblastogenesis and osteoinduction remains incomplete. Here, we systematically monitored in vitro the chemistry of mesenchymal cell metabolism and the ionic exchanges during osteoblastogenesis on selected substrates through conventional biological assays as well as via in situ and ex situ spectroscopic techniques. Accordingly, the chemical behavior of different bioceramic substrates during their interactions with mesenchymal cells could be unfolded and compared with that of biomedical titanium alloy. Our goal was to clarify the cascade of chemical equations behind the biological processes that govern osteoblastogenic effects on different biomaterial substrates.