Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis (EAF) is an uncommon inflammatory disease that develops from the respiratory organs and affects them. Almost all reports about EAF describe lesions affecting the upper respiratory tract. We present the first case of EAF of the lung treated by surgical excision. A 69-year-old female consulted our hospital following the detection of an abnormal chest shadow with chronic cough. Chest computed tomography showed a pulmonary growing mass in the right hilar area, which corresponded to an enhanced accumulation on positron emission tomography. We doubted a pulmonary malignant tumor and performed a right upper lobectomy. Pathological and other clinical presentations revealed EAF of the lung without coexisting systemic diseases. The patient had an uncomplicated postoperative course, and the presenting cough had improved. EAF can involve the lung and cause symptomatic airway obstruction. For a hilar region mass with imaging characteristics similar to those of lung cancer, a differential diagnosis must be considered.