In this study, we synthesized a series of pH-sensitive and salt-sensitive N-succinyl-chitosan hydrogels with N-succinyl-chitosan (NSCS) and the crosslinker glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) via a one-step hydrothermal process. The structure and morphology analysis of the NSCS and glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane-N-succinyl chitosan hydrogel (GNCH) revealed the close relation between the swelling behavior of hydrogels and the content of crosslinker GPTMS. The high GPTMS content could weaken the swelling capacity of hydrogels and improve their mechanical properties. The hydrogels show high pH sensitivity and reversibility in the range of pH 1.0 to 9.0, and exhibit on-off switching behavior between acidic and alkaline environments. In addition, the hydrogels perform smart swelling behaviors in NaCl, CaCl2, and FeCl3 solutions. These hydrogels may have great potential in medical applications.