Background: A child’s birth parameters not only enable assessment of intrauterine growth but are also helpful in identifying children at risk of developmental defects or diseases occurring in adulthood. Studies show that children born with a body weight that is small for their gestational age (SGA) are at a greater risk of hypertension though the inverse relation between excessive birth weight and the risk of primary hypertension in children is discussed less frequently. Purpose: To assess the impact of both birth weight and length on hypertension occurring in children aged 3–15 years. Methods: A total of 1000 children attending randomly selected primary schools and kindergartens were examined. Ultimately, the analyses took into account n = 747 children aged 4–15; 52.6% boys and 47.4% girls. The children’s body height and weight were measured; their blood pressure was examined using the oscillometric method. Information on perinatal measurements was retrieved from the children’s personal health records. Results: Compared to the children with small for gestational age (SGA) birth weight, the children with appropriate for gestational age birth weight (AGA) (odds ratio (OR) 1.31; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64–2.65) present greater risk for primary hypertension. Infants born with excessive body weight >4000 g irrespective of gestational age, compared to infants born with normal body weight, show increased risk of primary hypertension (OR 1.19; 95% CI 0.68–2.06). Higher risk of hypertension is observed in infants born with greater body length (OR 1.03; 95% CI 0.97–1.08). Conclusions: The problem of hypertension may also affect children with birth weight appropriate for gestational age. The prevalence of hypertension in children with AGA birth weight decreases with age. Birth length can be a potential risk factor for hypertension in children and adolescents.