Agricultural technology transfer plays a chief role in transforming agricultural productivity in rural areas especially in the current setting where food demand surpasses the production capacity. Technology transfer facilitates the movement of soft and hard skills essential for improving farm production. Yet, the technical cooperation projects in Africa have been suffering from effectiveness and sustainability challenges while lacking responsiveness to local demand. This study applies a system dynamic method and a literature review to bring lessons from Japan and China’s experiences in agricultural technology transfer projects to Africa. Three cases in agricultural technical cooperation projects are presented: China—(Agricultural Technology Demonstration Center (ATDC) in Tanzania), Japan—(Smallholder Horticulture Empowerment Project (SHEP), and Rice Industry Development Support (RIDS) in Kenya and Tanzania, respectively). Japanese and Chinese agricultural technology has the potential to improve productivity and the livelihood of rural households. Nevertheless, strong linkages, commitment, and participation of all stakeholders in the design and implementation of agricultural technology transfer projects play an important role in enhancing project sustainability in the recipient countries. Further studies are recommended such as, to explain the agricultural technology transfer mechanism that fits well to equip beneficiary autonomy in terms of knowledge and capacity of production in the recipient country. The local governments need to set policy environments and institutional frameworks that encourage and support the agricultural technology transfer to benefit the rural farmers.