Background: Urban food production in the developed world has recently been facing the challenge of feeding the world’s cities adequately and on a sustainable basis, and innovative models of food production can help this transition. Nevertheless, this field of research largely focuses on primary food production—so-called urban farming—while the subsequent steps of the food chain have scarcely been investigated. In this context, this study aimed to provide a preliminary evaluation of urban food processing, taking mozzarella cheese production in the city of Milan as a case study. Methods: Five urban farmers participated in a direct survey aiming at identifying how sustainable this specific production chain can be considered. Results: Results demonstrated that the concept of urban food production is really valorized through measures able to enhance the global sustainability of the food production process only in some of the dairy micro- enterprises and that the economic dimension must be considered the variable most critically involved in hampering the global sustainability of this specific food chain. Conclusions: This research suggests the need to disseminate a global governance of urban supply chains and to support local activities, which represent a sensitive and strategic sector.