High mobility group A (HMGA) proteins are oncofoetal chromatin architectural factors that are widely involved in regulating gene expression. These proteins are unique, because they are highly expressed in embryonic and cancer cells, where they play a relevant role in cell proliferation, stemness, and the acquisition of aggressive tumour traits, i.e., motility, invasiveness, and metastatic properties. The HMGA protein expression levels and activities are controlled by a connected set of events at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational levels. In fact, microRNA (miRNA)-mediated RNA stability is the most-studied mechanism of HMGA protein expression modulation. In this review, we contribute to a comprehensive overview of HMGA-targeting miRNAs; we provide detailed information regarding HMGA gene structural organization and a comprehensive evaluation and description of HMGA-targeting miRNAs, while focusing on those that are widely involved in HMGA regulation; and, we aim to offer insights into HMGA-miRNA mutual cross-talk from a functional and cancer-related perspective, highlighting possible clinical implications.