Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common life-limiting inherited disease in Caucasian populations, affecting approximately 80,000 people worldwide. CF is a complex multi-organ monogenic autosomal recessive disorder caused by a mutation in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. Since the discovery of the CFTR gene in 1989, more than 2000 mutations have been identified so far and about 240 can cause CF. Until recently, the treatment for CF was aimed to prevent and manage the manifestations of CFTR dysfunction, primarily recurrent pulmonary infections and pancreatic exocrine failure. Over the past few decades, the therapeutic approach to CF has been revolutionized by the development of a new class of small molecules called CFTR modulators that target specific defects caused by mutations in the CFTR gene. CFTR modulators have been shown to change profoundly the clinical course of the CF, leading to meaningful improvements in the lives of a large proportion of people of CF heterozygous for F508del, especially if started in young children. Further studies are needed to extend the use of triple CFTR modulation therapy also for young children in order to prevent the irreversible effects of the disease and for patients with very rare mutations with a personalized approach to treatment.