At present, there are very few analysis methods for long-term electroencephalogram (EEG) components. Temporal information is always ignored by most of the existing techniques in cognitive studies. Therefore, a new analysis method based on time-varying characteristics was proposed. First of all, a regression model based on Lasso was proposed to reveal the difference between acoustics and physiology. Then, Permutation Tests and Gaussian fitting were applied to find the highest correlation. A cognitive experiment based on 93 emotional sounds was designed, and the EEG data of 10 volunteers were collected to verify the model. The 48-dimensional acoustic features and 428 EEG components were extracted and analyzed together. Through this method, the relationship between the EEG components and the acoustic features could be measured. Moreover, according to the temporal relations, an optimal offset of acoustic features was found, which could obtain better alignment with EEG features. After the regression analysis, the significant EEG components were found, which were in good agreement with cognitive laws. This provides a new idea for long-term EEG components, which could be applied in other correlative subjects.