Parkinson`s disease (PD) is a major public health problem. Since currently there are no reliable diagnostic tools to reveal the early steps of PD, new methods should be developed, including those searching the variations in human metabolome. Alterations in human metabolites could help to establish an earlier and more accurate diagnosis. The presented research shows a targeted metabolomics study of both of the serum and CSF from PD patients, atypical parkinsonian disorders (APDs) patients, and the control. The use of the LC-MS/MS system enabled to quantitate 144 analytes in the serum and 51 in the CSF. This information about the concentration enabled for selection of the metabolites useful for differentiation between the studied group of patients, which should be further evaluated as candidates for markers of screening and differential diagnosis of PD and APDs. Among them, the four compounds observed to be altered in both the serum and CSF seem to be the most important: tyrosine, putrescine, trans-4-hydroxyproline, and total dimethylarginine. Furthermore, we indicated the metabolic pathways potentially related to neurodegeneration processes. Our studies present evidence that the proline metabolism might be related to neurodegeneration processes underlying PD and APDs. Further studies on the proposed metabolites and founded metabolic pathways may significantly contribute to understanding the molecular background of PD and improving the diagnostics and treatment in the future.