Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6230: Utility of Bioluminescent Homogeneous Nucleotide Detection Assays in Measuring Activities of Nucleotide-Sugar Dependent Glycosyltransferases and Studying Their Inhibitors (Molecules)
Traditional glycosyltransferase (GT) activity assays are not easily configured for rapid detection nor for high throughput screening because they rely on radioactive product isolation, the use of heterogeneous immunoassays or mass spectrometry. In a typical glycosyltransferase biochemical reaction, two products are generated, a glycosylated product and a nucleotide released from the sugar donor substrate. Therefore, an assay that detects the nucleotide could be universal to monitor the activity of diverse glycosyltransferases in vitro. Here we describe three homogeneous and bioluminescent glycosyltransferase activity assays based on UDP, GDP, CMP, and UMP detection. Each of these assays are performed in a one-step detection that relies on converting the nucleotide product to ATP, then to bioluminescence using firefly luciferase. These assays are highly sensitive, robust and resistant to chemical interference. Various applications of these assays are presented, including studies on the specificity of sugar transfer by diverse GTs and the characterization of acceptor substrate-dependent and independent nucleotide-sugar hydrolysis. Furthermore, their utility in screening for specific GT inhibitors and the study of their mode of action are described. We believe that the broad utility of these nucleotide assays will enable the investigation of a large number of GTs and may have a significant impact on diverse areas of Glycobiology research.