Recent studies have shown that the high-resolution satellite Landsat-8 has the capability to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) over urban areas at a 30 m spatial resolution. However, its long revisiting time and narrow swath limit the coverage and frequency of the high resolution AOD observations. With the increasing number of Earth observation satellites launched in recent years, combining the observations of multiple satellites can provide higher temporal-spatial coverage. In this study, a fusing retrieval algorithm is developed to retrieve high-resolution (30 m) aerosols over urban areas from Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 A/B satellite measurements. The new fusing algorithm was tested and evaluated over Beijing city and its surrounding area in China. The validation results show that the retrieved AODs show a high level of agreement with the local urban ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) AOD measurements, with an overall high coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.905 and small root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.119. Compared with the operational AOD products processed by the Landsat-8 Surface Reflectance Code (LaSRC-AOD), Sentinel Radiative Transfer Atmospheric Correction code (SEN2COR-AOD), and MODIS Collection 6 AOD (MOD04) products, the AOD retrieved from the new fusing algorithm based on the Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 A/B observations exhibits an overall higher accuracy and better performance in spatial continuity over the complex urban area. Moreover, the temporal resolution of the high spatial resolution AOD observations was greatly improved (from 16/10/10 days to about two to four days over globe land in theory under cloud-free conditions) and the daily spatial coverage was increased by two to three times compared to the coverage gained using a single sensor.