The phytopathogenic bacterium Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pba), one of the members of the soft rot Pectobacteriaceae, forms biofilm-like structures known as bacterial emboli when colonizing the primary xylem vessels of the host plants. The initial extracellular matrix of the bacterial emboli is composed of the host plant’s pectic polysaccharides, which are gradually substituted by the Pba-produced exopolysaccharides (Pba EPS) as the bacterial emboli “mature”. No information about the properties of Pba EPS and their possible roles in Pba-plant interactions has so far been obtained. We have shown that Pba EPS possess physical properties that can promote the maintenance of the structural integrity of bacterial emboli. These polymers increase the viscosity of liquids and form large supramolecular aggregates. The formation of Pba EPS aggregates is provided (at least partly) by the acetyl groups of the Pba EPS molecules. Besides, Pba EPS scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), the accumulation of which is known to be associated with the formation of bacterial emboli. In addition, Pba EPS act as suppressors of the quantitative immunity of plants, repressing PAMP-induced reactions; this property is partly lost in the deacetylated form of Pba EPS. Overall, our study shows that Pba EPS play structural, protective, and immunosuppressive roles during Pba–plant interactions and thus should be considered as virulence factors of these bacteria.