The flower is the main organ that produces essential oils in many plants. The yield of raw flowers and the number of secretory epidermal cells are the main factors for essential oil production. The cultivated rose species “Pingyin 1” in China was used to study the effect of RrANT1 on floral organ development. Eighteen AP2 transcription factors with dual AP2 domains were identified from Rosa rugosa genome. RrANT1 belonged to euANT. The subcellular localization results showed that RrANT1 protein is localized in the nucleus. The relative expression level of RrANT1 in the receptacle is higher than that in petals in the developmental stages, and both decreased from the initial phase to senescence. Compared with the RrANT1 expression level in petals in the blooming stage, RrANT1 expression level was significant in petals (~48.8) and highest in the receptacle (~102.5) in the large bud stage. It was only highly expressed in the receptacle (~39.4) in the blooming period. RrANT1 overexpression significantly increased petunia flower and leaf sizes (~1.2), as well as flower fresh weight (~30%). The total number of epidermis cells in the petals of overexpressing plants significantly increased (>40%). This study concluded that RrANT1 overexpression can increase the size and weight of flowers by promoting cell proliferation, providing a basis for creating new rose germplasm to increase rose and essential oil yield.