Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are crucial calcium ions (Ca2+) sensors in plants with important roles in signal transduction, plant growth, development, and stress responses. Here, we identified 24 genes encoding CDPKs in Dendrobium officinale using genome-wide analysis. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that these genes formed four groups, with similar structures in the same group. The gene expression patterns following hormone treatments and yeast two-hybrid of homologous CDPK gene pairs with Rbohs showed differences, indicating functional divergence between homologous genes. In addition, the rapid accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and stomatal closure was observed in response to salicylic acid (SA)/jasmonic acid (JA) stress. Our data showed that CDPK9-2 and CDPK20-4 interacted with Rboh D and Rboh H, respectively, and were implicated in the generation of H2O2 and regulation of the stomatal aperture in response to salicylic acid/jasmonic acid treatment. We believe these results can provide a foundation for the functional divergence of homologous genes in D. officinale.