Vining growth (VG) and high plant height (PH) are the physiological traits of wild soybean that preclude their utilization for domesticated soybean breeding and improvement. To identify VG- and PH-related quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in different genetic resources, two populations of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed by crossing a cultivated soybean, Zhonghuang39 (ZH39), with two wild soybean accessions, NY27-38 and NY36-87. Each line from the two crosses was evaluated for VG and PH. Three QTLs for VG and three for PH, detected in the ZH39 × NY27-38 population of the RILs, co-located on chromosomes 2, 17 and 19. The VG- and PH-related QTL in the ZH39 × NY36-87 population co-located on chromosome 19. A common QTL shared by the two populations was located on chromosome 19, suggesting that this major QTL was consistently selected for in different genetic backgrounds. The results suggest that different loci are involved in the domestication or adaptations of soybean of various genetic backgrounds. The molecular markers presented here would benefit the fine mapping and cloning of candidate genes underlying the VG and PH co-localized regions and thus facilitate the utilization of wild resources in breeding by avoiding undesirable traits.