The ethnobotany of the Sahrawi people considers various species of plants and crude drugs as food, cooking spices and traditional health remedies. From among these, the fruits of Ammodaucus leucotrichus Coss. & Dur. (Apiaceae), known as Saharan cumin, were chosen for our research. The present paper reports a proximate composition and mineral element analysis of various samples of A. leucotrichus fruits, collected during the balsamic period (full fruiting) from plants grown in Bir Lehlu (Western Sahara) and purchased in a local market (Tindouf). These analyses pointed out interesting nutritional values of the crude drug. Decoction and alcoholic extract, analyzed by HPLC-DAD, evidenced ammolactone-A and R-perillaldehyde as the two main isolated constituents, particularly in the ethanolic extracts (ammolactone-A, market sample: 51.71 ± 0.39 mg/g dry extract; wild sample: 111.60 ± 1.80 mg/g dry extract; R-perillaldehyde, market sample: 145.95 ± 0.35 mg/g dry extract; wild sample: 221.40 ± 0.30 mg/g dry extract). The essential oils, obtained through hydrodistillation, were characterized by GC-MS and evidenced R-perillaldehyde (market sample: 53.21 ± 1.52%; wild sample: 74.01 ± 1.75%) and limonene (market sample: 35.15 ± 1.68%; wild sample: 19.90 ± 1.86%) as the most abundant compounds. The R configuration of perillaldehyde was ascertained and a complete description of the 1H and 13C NMR spectra of ammolactone-A was performed.