Although most patients with asthma symptoms are well controlled by inhaled glucocorticoids (GCs), a subgroup of patients suffering from severe asthma respond poorly to GC therapy. Such GC insensitivity (GCI) represents a profound challenge in managing patients with asthma. Even though GCI in patients with severe asthma has been investigated by several groups using immune cells (peripheral blood mononuclear cells and alveolar macrophages), uncertainty exists regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms in non-immune cells, such as airway smooth cells (ASM) cells. In asthma, ASM cells are among the targets of GC therapy and have emerged as key contributors not only to bronchoconstriction but also to airway inflammation and remodeling, as implied by experimental and clinical evidence. We here summarize the current understanding of the actions/signaling of GCs in asthma, and specifically, GC receptor (GR) “site-specific phosphorylation” and its role in regulating GC actions. We also review some common pitfalls associated with studies investigating GCI and the inflammatory mediators linked to asthma severity. Finally, we discuss and contrast potential molecular mechanisms underlying the impairment of GC actions in immune cells versus non-immune cells such as ASM cells.