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RSS FeedsIJMS, Vol. 23, Pages 9034: Alpha-Ketoglutarate or 5-HMF: Single Compounds Effectively Eliminate Leukemia Cells via Caspase-3 Apoptosis and Antioxidative Pathways (International Journal of Molecular Sciences)


12 august 2022 14:23:27

IJMS, Vol. 23, Pages 9034: Alpha-Ketoglutarate or 5-HMF: Single Compounds Effectively Eliminate Leukemia Cells via Caspase-3 Apoptosis and Antioxidative Pathways (International Journal of Molecular Sciences)

Background: We recently showed that a combined solution containing alpha-ketoglutarate (aKG) and 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural (5-HMF) has a solid antitumoral effect on the Jurkat cell line due to the fact of its antioxidative, caspase-3 and apoptosis activities, but no negative effect on human fibroblasts was obtained. The question arises how the single compounds, aKG and 5-HMF, affect peroxynitrite (ONOO−) and nitration of tyrosine residues, Jurkat cell proliferation and caspase-activated apoptosis. Methods: The ONOO− luminol-induced chemiluminescence reaction was used to measure the ONOO− scavenging function of aKG or 5-HMF, and their protection against nitration of tyrosine residues on bovine serum albumin was estimated with the ELISA technique. The Jurkat cell line was cultivated in the absence or presence of aKG or 5-HMF solutions between 0 and 3.5 µM aKG or 0 and 4 µM 5-HMF. Jurkat cells were tested for cell proliferation, mitochondrial activity and caspase-activated apoptosis. Results: aKG showed a concentration-dependent reduction in ONOO−, resulting in a 90% elimination of ONOO− using 200 mM aKG. In addition, 20 and 200 mM 5-HMF were able to reduce ONOO− only by 20%, while lower concentrations of 5-HMF remained stable in the presence of ONOO−. Nitration of tyrosine residues was inhibited 4 fold more effectively with 5-HMF compared to aKG measuring the IC50%. Both substances, aKG and 5-HMF, were shown to cause a reduction in Jurkat cell growth that was dependent on the dose and incubation time. The aKG effectively reduced Jurkat cell growth down to 50% after 48 and 72 h of incubation using the highest concentration of 3.5 µM, and 1, 1.6, 2, 3 and 4 µM 5-HMF inhibited any cell growth within (i) 24 h; 1.6, 2, 3 and 4 µM 5-HMF within 48 h (ii); 2, 3 and 4 µM 5-HMF within 72 h (iii). Furthermore, 4 µM was able to eliminate the starting cell number of 20,000 cells after 48 and 72 h down to 11,233 cells. The mitochondrial activity measurements supported the data on aKG or 5-HMF regarding cell growth in Jurkat cells, in both a dose- and incubation-time-dependent manner: the highest concentration of 3.5 µM aKG reduced the mitochondrial activity over 24 h (67.7%), 48 h (57.9%) and 72 h (46.8%) of incubation with Jurkat cells compared to the control incubation without aKG (100%). 5-HMF was more effective compared to aKG; the mitochondrial activity in the presence of 4 µM 5-HMF decreased after 24 h down to 68.4%, after 48 h to 42.9% and after 72 h to 32.0%. Moreover, 1.7 and 3.4 µM aKG had no effect on caspase-3-activated apoptosis (0.58% and 0.56%) in the Jurkat cell line. However, 2 and 4 µM 5-HMF increased the caspase-3-activated apoptosis up to 22.1% and 42.5% compared to the control (2.9%). A combined solution of 1.7 µM aKG + 0.7 µM 5-HMF showed a higher caspase-3-activated apoptosis (15.7%) compared to 1.7 µM aKG or 2 µM 5-HMF alone. In addition, 3.5 µM µg/mL aKG + 1.7 µM 5-HMF induced caspase-activated apoptosis up to 55.6% compared to 4.5% or 35.6% caspase-3 activity using 3.5 µM aKG or 4 µM 5-HMF. Conclusion: Both substances showed high antioxidative potential in eliminating either peroxynitrite or nitration of tyrosine residues, which results in a better inhibition of cell growth and mitochondrial activity of 5-HMF compared to aKG. However, caspase-3-activated apoptosis measurements revealed that the combination of both substances synergistically is the most effective compared to single compounds.

61 viewsCategory: Biochemistry, Biophysics, Molecular Biology
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