Endometrial stromal cells play an important role in reproductive success, especially in implantation and placentation. Although Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been studied to assess decidualization disorders in preeclampsia (PE), their role during trophoblast invasion remains unclear. This study aims to determine: (i) whether MSCs isolated from menstrual fluid (MenSCs) from nulliparous, multiparous, and women with a previous history of preeclampsia exhibited different patterns of proliferation and migration and (ii) whether reproductive history (i.e., prior pregnancy or prior history of PE) was able to produce changes in MenSCs, thus altering trophoblast invasion capacity. MenSCs were collected from nulliparous and multiparous women without a history of PE and from non-pregnant women with a history of PE. Proliferation and migration assays were performed on MenSCs with sulforhodamine B and transwell assays, respectively. Trophoblast invasion was analyzed by culturing HTR-8/SVneo trophospheres on a matrigel overlying MenSCs for 72 h at 5% O2, simulating a 3D implantation model. A previous history of pregnancy or PE did not impact the proliferative capacity or migratory behavior of MenSCs. Following exposure to physiological endometrial conditions, MenSCs demonstrated upregulated expression of IGFBP-1 and LIF mRNA, decidualization and window of implantation markers, respectively. The mRNA expression of VIM, NANOG, and SOX2 was upregulated upon trophosphere formation. Relative to co-culture with multiparous MenSCs, co-culture with PE-MenSCs was associated with reduced trophoblast invasion. The findings of this study suggest a potential role for communication between maternal MenSCs and invading trophoblast cells during the implantation process that could be implicated in the etiology of PE.