Sonoporation is the process of transient pore formation in the cell membrane triggered by ultrasound (US). Numerous studies have provided us with firm evidence that sonoporation may assist cancer treatment through effective drug and gene delivery. However, there is a massive gap in the body of literature on the issue of understanding the complexity of biophysical and biochemical sonoporation-induced cellular effects. This study provides a detailed explanation of the US-triggered bioeffects, in particular, cell compartments and the internal environment of the cell, as well as the further consequences on cell reproduction and growth. Moreover, a detailed biophysical insight into US-provoked pore formation is presented. This study is expected to review the knowledge of cellular effects initiated by US-induced sonoporation and summarize the attempts at clinical implementation.