An adaptive learning pigeon-inspired optimization based on mutation disturbance (ALPIO) is proposed for solving the problems of fuel consumption and threat avoidance in spacecraft cluster orbit reconstruction. First, considering the constraints of maintaining a safe distance between adjacent spacecraft within the spacecraft cluster and of avoiding space debris, the optimal performance index for orbital reconfiguration is proposed based on the fuel consumption required for path planning. Second, ALPIO is proposed to solve the path planning. Compared with traditional pigeon-inspired optimization, ALPIO uses the initialization of chaotic and elite backward learning to increase the population diversity, using a nonlinear weighting factor and adjustment factor to control the speed and accuracy of prepopulation convergence. The Cauchy mutation was implemented in the map and compass operator to prevent the population from falling into local optima, and the Gaussian mutation and variation factor were utilized in the landmark operator to prevent the population from stagnating in the late evolution. Through simulation experiments using nine test functions, ALPIO is shown to significantly improve accuracy when obtaining the optimum compared with PSO, PIO, and CGAPIO, and orbital reconfiguration consumes less total fuel. The trajectory of path planning for ALPIO is smoother than those of other optimization methods, and its obstacle avoidance path is the most stable.