Satellite altimetry technology has unparalleled advantages in the monitoring of hydrological resources. After decades of development, satellite altimetry technology has achieved a perfect integration from the geometric research of geodesy to the natural resource monitoring research. Satellite altimetry technology has shown great potential, whether solid or liquid. In general, this paper systematically reviews the development of satellite altimetry technology, especially in terms of data availability and program practicability, and proposes a multi-source altimetry data fusion method based on deep learning. Secondly, in view of the development prospects of satellite altimetry technology, the challenges and opportunities in the monitoring application and expansion of surface water changes are sorted out. Among them, the limitations of the data and the redundancy of the program are emphasized. Finally, the fusion scheme of altimetry technology and deep learning proposed in this paper is presented. It is hoped that it can provide effective technical support for the monitoring and application research of hydrological resources.