The importance of insects in our ecosystems is undeniable. The indiscriminate use of broad-spectrum insecticides is a factor in the decline in insect biomass. We identify and sequence a prominent neuropeptide hormone in insects with an overarching goal to elucidate relatedness and create a database of bioactive peptides that could inform possible cross-activity in biological assays for the identification of a biorational lead compound. The major task of an adipokinetic hormone (AKH) in an insect is the regulation of metabolic events, such as carbohydrate and lipid breakdown in storage tissue during intense muscular work. From genomic and/or transcriptomic information one may predict the genes encoding neuropeptides such as the AKHs of insects. Definite elucidation of the primary structure of the mature peptide with putative post-translational modifications needs analytical chemical methods. Here we use high-resolution mass spectrometry coupled with liquid chromatography to identify unequivocally the AKHs of five insect species (one cockroach, two moths, and two flies) of which either genomic/transcriptomic information was available or sequences from related species. We confirm predicted sequences and discover novel AKH sequences, including one with a post-translational hydroxyproline modification. The additional sequences affirm an evolutionary pattern of dipteran AKHs and a conserved pattern in crambid moths.