Ground penetration radar (GPR) technology has received in-depth analysis and rapid development in the field of civil engineering. GPR data analysis is one of the basic and challenging problems in this field. This research aims to conduct a comprehensive survey of the progress from 2015 to the present in GPR scanning tasks. More than 130 major publications are cited in this research covering different aspects of the research, including advanced data processing methods and a wide variety of applications. First, it briefly introduces the data collection of the GPR system and discusses the signal complexity in simulated/real scenes. Then, it reviews the main signal processing techniques used to interpret the GPR data. Subsequently, the latest GPR surveys are considered and divided according to four application domains, namely bridges, road pavements, underground utilities, and urban subsurface risks. Finally, the survey discusses the open challenges and directions for future research.