Photovoltaics and wind power are expected to account for a large share of power generation in the carbon-neutral era. A gas turbine combined cycle (GTCC) with an industrial gas turbine as the main engine has the ability to rapidly start up and can follow up to load fluctuations to smooth out fluctuations in power generation from renewable energy sources. Simultaneously, the system must be more efficient than today’s state-of-the-art GTCCs because it will use either Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) when burning natural gas or hydrogen/ammonia as fuel, which is more expensive than natural gas. This paper describes the trend of cooled turbine rotor blades used in large industrial gas turbines that are carbon neutral. First, the evolution of cooled turbine stationary vanes and rotor blades is traced. Then, the current status of heat transfer technology, blade material technology, and thermal barrier coating technology that will lead to the realization of future ultra-high-temperature industrial gas turbines is surveyed. Based on these technologies, this paper introduces turbine vane and blade cooling technologies applicable to ultra-high-temperature industrial gas turbines for GTCC in the carbon-neutral era.