Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a worldwide chronic intestinal inflammatory immune-related disease. In this study, mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis were used to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus on colitis. The results revealed that L. acidophilus CCFM137 and FAHWH11L56 show potential for relieving colitis symptoms, while L. acidophilus FGSYC48L79 did not show a protective effect. Moreover, L. acidophilus NCFM and FAHWH11L56 showed similar effects on various indicators of DSS-induced colitis, increasing the IL-10 and IL-17 in the colon, and modifying the CCL2/CCR2 axis and CCL3/CCR1 axis. For L. acidophilus CCFM137, its effects on colitis were different from the above two strains. Moreover, L. acidophilus FGSYC48L79 had negative effects on colitis by increasing the abundance of harmful bacteria in the gut microbiota and may promote the signaling of chemokines and their receptors. This may be related to its special genome compared to the other strains.