IJMS, Vol. 23, Pages 14843: Ex Vivo Antioxidant and Cholinesterase Inhibiting Effects of a Novel Galantamine–Curcumin Hybrid on Scopolamine-Induced Neurotoxicity in Mice (International Journal of Molecular Sciences)
Oxidative stress is an essential factor in the development and progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). An excessive amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induces the peroxidation of lipid membranes, reduces the activity of antioxidant enzymes and causes neurotoxicity. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant and cholinesterase inhibitory potential of a novel galantamine–curcumin hybrid, named 4b, administered orally in two doses (2.5 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg) in scopolamine (SC)-induced neurotoxicity in mice. To evaluate the effects of 4b, we used galantamine (GAL) (3 mg/kg) and curcumin (CCN) (25 mg/kg) as positive controls. Ex vivo experiments on mouse brains showed that the higher dose of 4b (5 mg/kg) increased reduced glutathione (GSH) levels by 46%, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity by 57%, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity by 108%, compared with the SC-treated group. At the same time, 4b (5 mg/kg) significantly reduced the brain malondialdehyde (MDA) level by 31% and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities by 40% and 30%, respectively, relative to the SC-impaired group. The results showed that 4b acted as an antioxidant agent and brain protector, making it promising for further experimental research in the field of neurodegenerative diseases.