The next-generation FengYun-3H satellite carrying a greenhouse gas absorption spectrometer (GAS) is planned for launch by 2024 with a strengthened ability to help researchers understand the global carbon cycle. However, assessments of the atmospheric CO2-detection capabilities of GAS are still incomplete, mainly in the following aspects: previous studies on the spectral range of GAS instruments often used the weak absorption band of CO2 molecules (1.61 μm); research on the measurement accuracies of different atmospheric environments above oceans is lacking; and most studies considered land surfaces as the bottom boundaries. Here, we simulated high spectral CO2 absorption spectra in both the strong and weak bands (2.06 and 1.61 μm) while considering the effects of different instrumental (spectral resolution and sampling rate) and environmental (wind speed, visibility, and rough sea surface) parameters. This is the first atmospheric CO2 absorption spectrum study to consider rough-sea-surface effects. The preliminary results show that the root mean squared error (RMSE) and mean absolute difference (MAD) values of the atmospheric CO2 transmittance spectra of GAS are 0.031 and 0.011, respectively, in the 1.61 μm band and 0.05 and 0.033 in the 2.06 μm band, revealing that GAS is competitive among similar CO2 instruments. This study provides a design reference for next-generation GAS instruments and contributes to spectral data CO2 processing in the above-sea atmosphere.