IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 15877: Why Do Drivers’ Collision Avoidance Maneuvers Tend to Cause SUVs to Sideslip or Rollover on Horizontal Curve and Grade Combinations?—An Analysis of the Causes Based on a Modified Multibody Dynamics Model (International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health)
The extent to which drivers’ collision avoidance maneuvers affect the safety margins of sideslip and rollover is not captured by road geometric design theory. To quantify the effects of drivers’ collision avoidance maneuvers on the safety margins of sport utility vehicles (SUVs) on horizontal curve and grade combinations, a modified 8-degree-of-freedom multibody model based on SUVs was developed. The model was then used to calculate the design safety margins of sideslip and rollover for steady states and the actual safety margins for collision avoidance maneuvers. Subsequently, the design safety margin reduction rate (the difference between the design and actual safety margins divided by the design safety margin) was calculated and used to assess the safety margins. The results showed that the safety margins of SUVs were significantly reduced by braking, lane changing, and lane changing with braking. The marginal effects indicated that the greater the deceleration and the shorter the lane change duration, the greater the effect on the safety margins, particularly the sideslip safety margin. Furthermore, when the SUV was driven at 80 km·h−1 on grades with a horizontal curve radius of 270 m and 400 m, the sideslip safety margin with emergency braking (deceleration over −4.5 m·s−2) was reduced by 71% and 21%, and the rollover safety margin was reduced by 11% and 5%, respectively. Under these conditions, an emergency lane change (lane change duration less than 2 s) caused the SUV to sideslip and reduced the rollover safety margin by 47% (curve radius 270 m) and 45% (curve radius 400 m). Therefore, drivers’ collision avoidance maneuvers are a factor that cannot be neglected in alignment design.