IJMS, Vol. 23, Pages 14959: Pulmonary Fibrosis as a Result of Acute Lung Inflammation: Molecular Mechanisms, Relevant In Vivo Models, Prognostic and Therapeutic Approaches (International Journal of Molecular Sciences)
Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic progressive lung disease that steadily leads to lung architecture disruption and respiratory failure. The development of pulmonary fibrosis is mostly the result of previous acute lung inflammation, caused by a wide variety of etiological factors, not resolved over time and causing the deposition of fibrotic tissue in the lungs. Despite a long history of study and good coverage of the problem in the scientific literature, the effective therapeutic approaches for pulmonary fibrosis treatment are currently lacking. Thus, the study of the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from acute lung inflammation to pulmonary fibrosis, and the search for new molecular markers and promising therapeutic targets to prevent pulmonary fibrosis development, remain highly relevant tasks. This review focuses on the etiology, pathogenesis, morphological characteristics and outcomes of acute lung inflammation as a precursor of pulmonary fibrosis; the pathomorphological changes in the lungs during fibrosis development; the known molecular mechanisms and key players of the signaling pathways mediating acute lung inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis, as well as the characteristics of the most common in vivo models of these processes. Moreover, the prognostic markers of acute lung injury severity and pulmonary fibrosis development as well as approved and potential therapeutic approaches suppressing the transition from acute lung inflammation to fibrosis are discussed.