The utilization of symbiosis with beneficial microorganisms has considerable potential for increasing growth and resistance under abiotic stress. The endophytic root fungus Piriformospora indica has been shown to improve plant growth under salt and drought stress in diverse plant species, while there have been few reports of the interaction of P. indica with soybean under salt stress. In this study, the symbiotic system of P. indica and soybean (Glycine max L.) was established, and the effect of P. indica on soybean growth and salt tolerance was investigated. The colonized and non-colonized soybeans were subjected to salt stress (200 mmol/L NaCl), and the impairments in chlorophyll and increasing relative conductivity that can be caused by salt stress were alleviated in the P. indica-colonized plants. The accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and superoxide anion (O2−) were lower than that in non-colonized plants under salt treatment, whereas the activities of antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased by P. indica colonization, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR). Importantly, without salt treatment, the Na+ concentration was lower, and the K+ concentration was higher in the roots compared with non-colonized plants. Differential expressions of ion transporter genes were found in soybean roots after P. indica colonization. The P. indica colonization positively regulated the transcription level of PM H+-ATPase, SOS1, and SOS2. The study shows that P. indica enhances the growth and salt tolerance of soybean, providing a strategy for the agricultural production of soybean plants in saline-alkali soils.