For the first time, the efficacy of post-exposure treatment of organophosphate (OP) poisoning was increased by transdermal delivery of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivator pyridine-2-aldoxime methochloride (2-PAM) as a preventive countermeasure. By selecting the optimal ratio of components, classical transfersomes (based on soybean phosphatidylcholine and Tween 20) and modified transfersomes (based on soybean phosphatidylcholine, Tween 20 and pyrrolidinium cationic surfactants with different hydrocarbon tail lengths) were obtained for 2-PAM encapsulation. Transfersomes modified with tetradecylpyrrolidinium bromide showed the best results in encapsulation efficiency and sustained release of 2-PAM from vesicles. Using Franz cells, it was found that the incorporation of surfactants into PC liposomes results in a more prolonged release of 2-PAM through the rat skin. Transfersomes containing 2-PAM, after exhaustive physical and chemical characterization, were embedded in a gel based on Carbopol® 940. A significantly high degree of erythrocyte AChE reactivation (23 ± 7%) was shown for 2-PAM in unmodified transfersomes in vivo. Preliminary transdermal administration of 2-PAM 24 h before emergency post-exposure treatment of OP poisoning leads to an increase in the survival rate of rats from 55% to 90%.