Understanding pore-scale morphology and distribution of remaining oil in pore space are of great importance to carry out in-depth tapping of oil potential. Taking two water-wet cores from a typical clastic reservoir in China as an example, X-ray CT imaging is conducted at different experimental stages of water flooding and polymer-surfactant (P-S) flooding by using a high-resolution X-ray microtomography. Based on X-ray micro-CT image processing, 3D visualization of rock microstructure and fluid distribution at the pore scale is achieved. The integral geometry newly developed is further introduced to characterize pore-scale morphology and distribution of remaining oil in pore space. The underlying mechanism of oil recovery by P-S flooding is further explored. The results show that the average diameter of oil droplets gradually decreases, and the topological connectivity becomes worse after water flooding and P-S flooding. Due to the synergistic effect of “1 + 1 > 2” between the strong sweep efficiency of surfactant and the enlarged swept volume of the polymer, oil droplets with a diameter larger than 124.58 μm can be gradually stripped out by the polymer-surfactant system, causing a more scattered distribution of oil droplets in pore spaces of the cores. The network-like oil clusters are still dominant when water flooding is continued to 98% of water cut, but the dominant pore-scale oil morphology has evolved from network-like to porous-type and isolated-type after P-S flooding, which can provide strong support for further oil recovery in the later stage of chemical flooding.