Marine environments cover more than 70% of the Earth’s surface and are among the richest and most complex ecosystems. In terms of biodiversity, the ocean represents an important source, still not widely exploited, of bioactive products derived from species of bacteria, plants, and animals. However, global warming, in combination with multiple anthropogenic practices, represents a serious environmental problem that has led to an increase in gelatinous zooplankton, a phenomenon referred to as jellyfish bloom. In recent years, the idea of “sustainable development” has emerged as one of the essential elements of green-economy initiatives; therefore, the marine environment has been re-evaluated and considered an important biological resource. Several bioactive compounds of marine origin are being studied, and among these, marine collagen represents one of the most attractive bio-resources, given its use in various disciplines, such as clinical applications, cosmetics, the food sector, and many other industrial applications. This review aims to provide a current overview of marine collagen applications in the pharmacological and biomedical fields, regenerative medicine, and cell therapy.