The skin is the largest organ of the human body. Skin injuries, especially full-thickness injuries, are a major treatment challenge in clinical practice. Therefore, wound dressing materials with therapeutic effects have great practical significance in healthcare. This study used photocrosslinkable gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) and sulfhydrylated chitosan (CS-SH) to design a double-crosslinked hydrogel for wound dressing. When crosslinked together, the resulting hydrogels showed a highly porous inner structure, and enhanced mechanical properties and moisture retention capacity. The compression modulus of the GelMA/CS-SH hydrogel (GCH) reached up to about 40 kPa and was much higher than that of pure GelMA hydrogel, and the compression modulus was increased with the amount of CS-SH. In vitro study showed no cytotoxicity of obtained hydrogels. Interestingly, a higher concentration of CS-SH slightly promoted the proliferation of cells. Moreover, the double-crosslinked hydrogel exhibited antibacterial properties because of the presence of chitosan. In vivo study based on rats showed that full-thickness skin defects healed on the 15th day. Histological results indicate that the hydrogel accelerated the repair of hair follicles and encouraged the orderly growth of collagen fibers in the wound. Furthermore, better blood vessel formation and a higher expression of VEGFR were observed in the hydrogel group when compared with the untreated control group. Based on our findings, GCH could be a promising candidate for full-thickness wound dressing.