The building sector is crucial in all of the possible net zero scenarios suggested for the European Union. In this area, the Italian situation is exemplary. Italy suffers from an aging and low-performance building stock and needs to increase its annual rate of energy retrofits in order to achieve its 2030 and 2050 targets. Even though since at least 2007, several different incentives schemes intended to stimulate energy-efficiency interventions have been in place, Italy has not been sufficiently able to promote deep retrofits. In 2020, in order to help the economy recover after the lockdowns that were introduced to face the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, the existing incentives were increased to up to 110% of investments for interventions that improved the energy class by at least two grades. This so-called “Superbonus” was also extended to the public social housing sector thanks to a credit assignment scheme. Given the results of this provisional phase, a possible policy roadmap for the energy renovation of the residential and educational building stock in Italy is presented in this paper through an analysis of data related to the implementation of current instruments in terms of number of interventions, investment needed, energy savings and evaluation of potential benefits and costs that can derive from an increase in the current deep-renovation rate. Through definition of a long-term renovation strategy, this paper illustrates how market barriers and other issues in instrument design can be tackled and how policymakers can help to develop a sustainable long-term roadmap for energy-efficient buildings. Beyond the residential sector, public buildings, particularly educational buildings, are taken into consideration as well, as they are places of collective use that represent the social values of fairness and sustainability and can therefore have an exemplary role for private initiatives.