Demulsifiers are considered the key materials for oil/water separation. Various works in recent years have shown that demulsifiers with polyoxypropylen epolyoxyethylene branched structures possess better demulsification effects. In this work, inspired by the chemical structure of demulsifiers, a novel superhydrophilic/underwater superoleophobic membrane modified with a polyoxypropylene polyoxyethylene block polymer was fabricated for enhanced separation of O/W emulsion. First, a typical polyoxypropylene polyoxyethylene triblock polymer (Pluronic F127) was grafted onto the poly styrene-maleic anhydride (SMA). Then, the Pluronic F127-grafted SMA (abbreviated as F127@SMA) was blended with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) for the preparation of the F127@SMA/PVDF ultrafiltration membrane. The obtained F127@SMA/PVDF ultrafiltration membrane displayed superhydrophilic/underwater superoleophobic properties, with a water contact angle of 0° and an underwater oil contact angle (UOCA) higher than 150° for various oils. Moreover, it had excellent separation efficiency for SDS-stabilized emulsions, even when the oil being emulsified was crude oil. The oil removal efficiency was greater than 99.1%, and the flux was up to 272.4 L·m−2·h−1. Most importantly, the proposed F127@SMA/PVDF membrane also exhibited outstanding reusability and long-term stability. Its UOCA remained higher than 150° in harsh acidic, alkaline, and high-salt circumstances. Overall, the present work proposed an environmentally friendly and convenient approach for the development of practical oil/water separation membranes.