Microplastics are ubiquitously in various environments from the equator to the poles. Coastal agglomerations act as both a source and sink connecting the global microplastic cycles of oceans and continents. While the problem of microplastics is particularly severe and complex in the coastal zones, where both inland and marine pollution are concentrated, the present study aimed to provide hot topics and trends of coastal urban microplastic studies and to review the researches on microplastic pollution in the atmosphere and water bodies in coastal agglomerations in terms of characteristics, behavior, and health threat of microplastics. The results of the bibliometric analysis showed an increase in the annual output of microplastic research. Research hot topics and clusters were analyzed using the VOSviewer. Characteristics of microplastics varied in abundance, size, and polymer type in different environments and countries. Furthermore, coastal cities are taken as a system to sort out the input, output, and internal transmission pathways of microplastics. The health threat of microplastics to urban residents was briefly reviewed and the exposure and health risks of microplastics to infants and young children were of particular concern. Detailed and comprehensive studies on intervention and reduction in the transmission of microplastics between the atmosphere and water bodies, whether microplastics are harmful to infants and young children, and measures to reduce the risk of microplastic exposure are needed.