With the development of urban underground space and increased infrastructure functions, both the scale of engineering construction and engineering difficulties have increased globally. In the construction of structures in soft strata, especially in coastal areas, the limited bearing capacity of the foundations poses a significant challenge. The composite pile technologies employing an organic combination of the rigid pile andthe flexible column can enable efficient soft ground treatment. In light of prominent global environmental issues, low-carbon energy-saving curing technologies have been rapidly developed for application in geotechnical engineering. This paper discusses progress in research on the mechanical properties of the efficient and low-carbon pile technologies, including the stiffened deep mixing (SDM) column, squeezed branch pile, pre-bored grouting plated nodular (PGPN) pile, precast cement pile reinforced by cemented soil with a variable section (PCCV), and carbonized composite pile (CCP). In addition, it reviews the technical characteristics and recent progress of feasible low-carbon energy-efficient curing technologies. The paper also proposes future directions for theoretical research and technological development of low-carbon pile technologies. The key contribution of this review is to provide insights into efficient and low-carbon pile technologies. In addition, the findings from the study of the pile technologies used in extra-thick soft strata also provide industry practitioners with a comprehensive guide regarding the specific applications and mechanical performance of the pile technologies, which can serve as a stepping stone to facilitate the technological development of the underground space industry.