Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease, but no effective and safe disease-modifying treatment is available. Risk factors such as age, sex, genetics, injuries and obesity can concur to the onset of the disease, variably triggering the loss of maturational arrest of chondrocytes further sustained by oxidative stress, inflammation and catabolism. Different types of nutraceuticals have been studied for their anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Olive-derived polyphenols draw particular interest due to their ability to dampen the activation of pivotal signaling pathways in OA. Our study aims to investigate the effects of oleuropein (OE) and hydroxytyrosol (HT) in in vitro OA models and elucidate their possible effects on NOTCH1, a novel therapeutic target for OA. Chondrocytes were cultured and exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Detailed analysis was carried out about the OE/HT mitigating effects on the release of ROS (DCHF-DA), the increased gene expression of catabolic and inflammatory markers (real time RT-PCR), the release of MMP-13 (ELISA and Western blot) and the activation of underlying signaling pathways (Western blot). Our findings show that HT/OE efficiently attenuates LPS-induced effects by firstly reducing the activation of JNK and of the NOTCH1 pathway downstream. In conclusion, our study provides molecular bases supporting the dietary supplementation of olive-derived polyphenols to revert/delay the progression of OA.