In December 2019, COVID-19 emerged in China, and in January 2020, the World Health Organization declared a state of international emergency. Within this context, there is a significant search for new drugs to fight the disease and a need for in vitro models for preclinical drug tests. This study aims to develop a 3D lung model. For the execution, Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSC) were isolated and characterized through flow cytometry and trilineage differentiation. For pulmonary differentiation, the cells were seeded in plates coated with natural functional biopolymer matrix as membrane until spheroid formation, and then the spheroids were cultured with differentiation inductors. The differentiated cells were characterized using immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR, confirming the presence of alveolar type I and II, ciliated, and goblet cells. Then, 3D bioprinting was performed with a sodium alginate and gelatin bioink in an extrusion-based 3D printer. The 3D structure was analyzed, confirming cell viability with a live/dead assay and the expression of lung markers with immunocytochemistry. The results showed that the differentiation of WJ-MSC into lung cells was successful, as well as the bioprinting of these cells in a 3D structure, a promising alternative for in vitro drug testing.