IJMS, Vol. 24, Pages 9664: Fusarium Mycotoxins Zearalenone and Deoxynivalenol Reduce Hepatocyte Innate Immune Response after the Listeria monocytogenes Infection by Inhibiting the TLR2/NFκB Signaling Pathway (International Journal of Molecular Sciences)
Zearalenone (ZEA) and deoxynivalenol (DON) are two common mycotoxins produced by the genus Fusarium and have potential immunotoxic effects that may lead to a weak immune response against bacterial infections. Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes), a food-borne pathogenic microorganism ubiquitous in the environment, actively multiplies in the liver, where hepatocytes are capable of resistance through mediated innate immune responses. At present, it is not clear if ZEA and DON affect hepatocyte immune responses to L. monocytogenes infection or the mechanisms involved. Therefore, in this study, in vivo and in vitro models were used to investigate the effects of ZEA and DON on the innate immune responses of hepatocytes and related molecules after L. monocytogenes infection. In vivo studies revealed that ZEA and DON inhibited the toll-like receptors 2 (TLR2)/nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB) pathway in the liver tissue of L. monocytogenes-infected mice, downregulating the expression levels of Nitric oxide (NO), in the liver and repressing the immune response. In addition, ZEA and DON inhibited Lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-induced expression of TLR2 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) in Buffalo Rat Liver (BRL 3A) cells in vitro, downregulating the TLR2/NFκB signaling pathway and resulting in the decreased expression levels of NO, causing immunosuppressive effects. In summary, ZEA and DON can negatively regulate NO levels through TLR2/NFκB, inhibiting the innate immune responses of the liver, and aggravate L. monocytogenes infections in mouse livers.