Mouse guanylate-binding proteins (mGBPs) are recruited to various invasive pathogens, thereby conferring cell-autonomous immunity against these pathogens. However, whether and how human GBPs (hGBPs) target M. tuberculosis (Mtb) and L. monocytogenes (Lm) remains unclear. Here, we describe hGBPs association with intracellular Mtb and Lm, which was dependent on the ability of bacteria to induce disruption of phagosomal membranes. hGBP1 formed puncta structures which were recruited to ruptured endolysosomes. Furthermore, both GTP-binding and isoprenylation of hGBP1 were required for its puncta formation. hGBP1 was required for the recovery of endolysosomal integrity. In vitro lipid-binding assays demonstrated direct binding of hGBP1 to PI4P. Upon endolysosomal damage, hGBP1 was targeted to PI4P and PI(3,4)P2-positive endolysosomes in cells. Finally, live-cell imaging demonstrated that hGBP1 was recruited to damaged endolysosomes, and consequently mediated endolysosomal repair. In summary, we uncover a novel interferon-inducible mechanism in which hGBP1 contributes to the repair of damaged phagosomes/endolysosomes.