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14 august 2023 11:37:19

 
Remote Sensing, Vol. 15, Pages 4025: First Nighttime Light Spectra by Satellite—By EnMAP (Remote Sensing)
 


For the first time, nighttime VIS/NIR—SWIR (visible and near-infrared—shortwave infrared) spectra from a satellite mission have been analyzed using the EnMAP (Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program) high-resolution imaging spectrometer. This article focuses on the spectral characteristics. Firstly, we checked the spectral calibration of EnMAP using sodium light emissions. Here, By applying a newly devised general method, we estimated shifts of +0.3nm for VIS/NIR and −0.2nm for SWIR; the uncertainties were found to be within the range of [−0.4nm,+0.2nm] for VIS/NIR and [−1.2nm,+1.0nm] for SWIR. These results emphasize the high accuracy of the spectral calibration of EnMAP and illustrate the feasibility of methods based on nighttime Earth observations for the spectral calibration of future nighttime satellite missions. Secondly, by employing a straightforward general method, we identified the dominant lighting types and thermal emissions in Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, on a per-pixel basis, and we considered the consistency of the outcomes. The identification and mapping of different types of LED (light-emitting diode) illuminations were achieved—with 75% of the identified dominant lighting types identified in VIS/NIR—as well as high- and low-pressure sodium and metal halide, which made up 22% of the identified dominant lighting types in VIS/NIR and 29% in SWIR and other illumination sources, as well as high temperatures, where 33% of the identified dominant emission types in SWIR were achieved from space using EnMAP due to the elevated illumination levels in the observed location. These results illustrate the feasibility of the precise identification of lighting types and thermal emissions based on nighttime high-resolution imaging spectroscopy satellite products; moreover, they support the specification of spectral characteristics for upcoming nighttime missions.


 
36 viewsCategory: Geology, Physics
 
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