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RSS FeedsIJMS, Vol. 24, Pages 12965: Calcium Signaling during Cortical Apical Dendrite Initiation: A Role for Cajal-Retzius Neurons (International Journal of Molecular Sciences)

 
 

19 august 2023 11:22:54

 
IJMS, Vol. 24, Pages 12965: Calcium Signaling during Cortical Apical Dendrite Initiation: A Role for Cajal-Retzius Neurons (International Journal of Molecular Sciences)
 


The apical dendrite of a cortical projection neuron (CPN) is generated from the leading process of the migrating neuron as the neuron completes migration. This transformation occurs in the cortical marginal zone (MZ), a layer that contains the Cajal-Retzius neurons and their axonal projections. Cajal-Retzius neurons (CRNs) are well known for their critical role in secreting Reelin, a glycoprotein that controls dendritogenesis and cell positioning in many regions of the developing brain. In this study, we examine the possibility that CRNs in the MZ may provide additional signals to arriving CPNs, that may promote the maturation of CPNs and thus shape the development of the cortex. We use whole embryonic hemisphere explants and multiphoton microscopy to confirm that CRNs display intracellular calcium transients of <1-min duration and high amplitude during early corticogenesis. In contrast, developing CPNs do not show high-amplitude calcium transients, but instead show a steady increase in intracellular calcium that begins at the time of dendritic initiation, when the leading process of the migrating CPN is encountering the MZ. The possible existence of CRN to CPN communication was revealed by the application of veratridine, a sodium channel activator, which has been shown to preferentially stimulate more mature cells in the MZ at an early developmental time. Surprisingly, veratridine application also triggers large calcium transients in CPNs, which can be partially blocked by a cocktail of antagonists that block glutamate and glycine receptor activation. These findings outline a model in which CRN spontaneous activity triggers the release of glutamate and glycine, neurotransmitters that can trigger intracellular calcium elevations in CPNs. These elevations begin as CPNs initiate dendritogenesis and continue as waves in the post-migratory cells. Moreover, we show that the pharmacological blockade of glutamatergic signaling disrupts migration, while forced expression of a bacterial voltage-gated calcium channel (CavMr) in the migrating neurons promotes dendritic growth and migration arrest. The identification of CRN to CPN signaling during early development provides insight into the observation that many autism-linked genes encode synaptic proteins that, paradoxically, are expressed in the developing cortex well before the appearance of synapses and the establishment of functional circuits.


 
93 viewsCategory: Biochemistry, Biophysics, Molecular Biology
 
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